Angiodysplasia - Causes, Symptom, Cure, Treatment of Angiodysplasia
Synonyms and related keywords: vascular ectasia, arteriovenous malformation, hemangioma, telangiectasia, vascular lesion of the gastrointestinal tract, gastrointestinal bleeding, GI bleeding, GI hemorrhage, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, rectal bleeding, blood in stool, colonoscopy
What is Angiodysplasia?
Angiodysplasia is also known as Vascular ectasias. Angiodysplasia of the colon is a condition of dilated and fragile blood vessels in the colon that results in intermittent loss of blood from the gastrointestinal tract. It is a degenerative lesion of previously healthy blood vessels found most commonly in the cecum and proximal ascending colon.
Causes of Angiodysplasia
- trauma to the aorta
- inflammation of the wall of the aorta
- Angiodysplasia of the colon is observed in at least 15-20% of persons with upper GI tract lesions.
- rare hereditary conditions such as Marfan's syndrome
Symptoms of Angiodysplasia
- Usually occurs after age 70 but can be seen after age 50
- Usually painless
- In most cases, bleeding presents as bright red blood but also can be maroon in color or melena.
- A microcytic hypochromic anemia, reflecting iron deficiency, is observed in 10-15% of cases.
- Bleeding may be in tiny amounts and lead to fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath secondary to anemia.
Treatment and Cure of Angiodysplasia
Angiodysplasia can be detected infrequently by visual inspection of the serosal side of the bowel during laparotomy. Angiodysplasia of colonic origin has been managed by endoscopic obliteration. Heater probe and multipolar electrocoagulation probe have been more successful than monopolar electrocoagulation.
Rebleeding rates for monopolar electrocoagulation have been approximately 50%, with the transfusion requirement resembling that of patients receiving no therapy. Monopolar electrocautery can obliterate angiodysplasia; however, bleeding recurs in approximately 50% of subjects. This has been attributed to other areas of angiodysplasia.